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Wireless Reading and Localization of Additively Manufactured Galinstan-Based Sensor Using a Polarimetric Millimeter-Wave Radar Imaging Technique

Volume: 72, Issue: 1, January 2024

Wireless Reading and Localization of Additively Manufactured Galinstan-Based Sensor Using a Polarimetric Millimeter-Wave Radar Imaging Technique

by Dominique Henry
Device Polarimetric millimeter-wave radar used to read a passive temperature sensor with a microfluidic channel filled with Galinstan.
Spectrum 23.8 GHz for this particular demonstration of the reading technique
Novelty Statistical estimation techniques using isolines computation and spatial averaging significantly reduces error contribution by waveguide variance (±20 µm), the meniscus of the Galinstan (±10 µm) and other contributors. Structural backscattering techniques that rely on the electromagnetic signature of the sensor, rather than sensing backscattering techniques that depend in part on the Galinstan level, successfully 3-D localizes the sensor and mitigates clutter in a vast majority of tested environments.
Performance 9.9 dB dynamic range, 4.5 dB/mm sensitivity at 2.4 m (0.9 dB at 14.8 m), ±10 µm or better accuracy after calibration for the environment
Multiband Comb-Enabled mm-Wave Transmission

Volume: 72, Issue: 1, January 2024

Multiband Comb-Enabled mm-Wave Transmission

by Dhecha Nopchinda
Device Electro-optical comb generator and a photodiode applied to generate multiple synchronized sources in multiple bands and sub-bands of the desired spectrum. Electro-optical comb generator and a photodiode applied to generate multiple synchronized sources in multiple bands and sub-bands of the desired spectrum.
Spectrum W-band (92-114.25 GHz), D-band (130-148 GHz) for this demonstration
Novelty A single oscillator is used to generate an optical comb that produces electrical signals at multiple frequencies in multiple bands and sub-bands when the o-comb is converted to an e-comb by a photodiode.
Performance The wideband phase noise performance in the >30 kHz region coincides closely with the low phase noise performance of the driver making the technique potentially suitable for wideband mm-wave transmission. Multiple sources derived from the o-comb forego requirements for frequency multipliers for enhanced phase noise performance.
Enhancing Beat-to-Beat Analysis of Heart Signals With Respiration Harmonics Reduction Through Demodulation and Template Matching

Volume: 72, Issue: 1, January 2024

Enhancing Beat-to-Beat Analysis of Heart Signals With Respiration Harmonics Reduction Through Demodulation and Template Matching

by Jannatun Noor Sameera
Device CW quadrature Doppler radar with a 100 Hz sampling rate
Spectrum 2.4 GHz
Novelty 1) The respiration harmonics content of the heart signal is significantly reduced with arctangent demodulation of the I and Q channel signals. 2) The heart signal is extracted from the AD signal with signal processing techniques incorporating multiresolution analysis, maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) and a template matching filter (TMF).
Performance Up to 87.14% reduction in respiration harmonic content of the I-channel signal and 83.03% reduction for Q-channel by arctangent demodulation; 12.43 ms mean absolute error (MAE) of the beat-to-beat interval (BBI).
A 36–91 GHz Broadband Beamforming Transmitter Architecture With Phase Error Between 1.2°–2.8° for Joint Communication and Sensing

Volume: 72, Issue: 1, January 2024

A 36–91 GHz Broadband Beamforming Transmitter Architecture With Phase Error Between 1.2°–2.8° for Joint Communication and Sensing

by Zheng Liu
Device Ultra-wideband (UWB) beamforming transmitter in 90-nm SiGe BiCMOS operating from 36 to 91 GHz with extremely low phase error comprising a variable gain amplifier (VGA) with a tailored frequency response, a UWB 5-bit vector modulator phase shifter, and a power amplifier (PA) enabled by inverse design method.
Spectrum 5G FR2 to W-band (30 to 100 GHz)
Novelty Precise phase control over the wide bandwidth is achieved with a 90° hybrid Marchand balun-based bandwidth extension network for ultra-wideband I/Q signal generation.
Performance 87% FBW, 0.5 LSB maximum phase error, 1.2° to 2.8° RSM phase error; 30-35 dB gain with 10 dB gain control, 0.24-0.35 dB RMS gain error; 9-13.5 dBm OP1dB, supporting 10.8 Gbps 64 QAM modulation with -25.6 dB EVM with 4 dBm Pavg at 60 GHz.
220-to-320-GHz Fundamental Mixer in 60-nm InP HEMT Technology Achieving 240-Gbps Dual-Band Data Transmission

Volume: 72, Issue: 1, January 2024

220-to-320-GHz Fundamental Mixer in 60-nm InP HEMT Technology Achieving 240-Gbps Dual-Band Data Transmission

by Teruo Jyo
Device 300 GHz band fundamental mixer in 60-nm InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology.
Spectrum 300 GHz band (220 GHz to 320 GHz)
Novelty 1) A widely split frequency matching network with a resistive mixer achieves 100 GHz bandwidth (widest ever reported in the 300 GHz band); 2) Dual band transmission with LO leakage cancelling achieves a 240 Gbps system data rate (highest ever reported in the 300 GHz band).
Performance 100 GHz -6 dB RF bandwidth, -15 dB conversion gain, 60 dB LO leakage suppression, up to 168 Gbps data rate per band demonstrated, 240 Gbps data rate achieved with two widely separated bands.
Robust Permittivity Reconstruction With the Transmission and Reflection Method at mm-Wave Frequencies

December 2023

Robust Permittivity Reconstruction With the Transmission and Reflection Method at mm-Wave Frequencies

by Simon Kornprobst
Device SWISSto12 material characteristics kit (MCK) that holds a material under test (MUT) between two corrugated horn antennas used to measure transmission and reflection characteristics to estimate the thickness and dielectric properties of the material with a modification of the Baker-Jarvis algorithm.
Spectrum V band, 50 GHz – 65 GHz
Novelty A novel time-gating method derives more information from transmission and reflection measurements by shifting measurement artifacts such as resonances and reflections outside the measured bandwidth. The Baker-Jarvis algorithm is modified to minimize the sum of squared differences instead of the magnitude of the respective determinants for a more reliable estimate of material thickness and dielectric properties.A novel time-gating method derives more information from transmission and reflection measurements by shifting measurement artifacts such as resonances and reflections outside the measured bandwidth. The Baker-Jarvis algorithm is modified to minimize the sum of squared differences instead of the magnitude of the respective determinants for a more reliable estimate of material thickness and dielectric properties.
Performance The modified Baker-Jarvis algorithm estimates are consistently more accurate than the original algorithm estimates for various material samples when compared to mechanical measurements of material thickness and literature references for relative permittivity and loss tangent.
A Wideband IF Receiver Chip for Flexibly Scalable mmWave Subarray Combining and Interference Rejection

December 2023

A Wideband IF Receiver Chip for Flexibly Scalable mmWave Subarray Combining and Interference Rejection

by Rehman Akbar
Device Subarray-based IF downconversion receiver on a 0.28mm2 45 nm PDSOI CMOS chip.
Spectrum 27.9 GHz
Novelty Both spatial rejection of mmWave subarrays and interbeam interference cancelling (IBIC) at IF by rotating the interfering beam cancels the interference from another independent subarray.
Performance 34 to 37 dB rejection for 50-100 MHz 5G NR signals; Up to 19 dB rejection over 100 MHz bandwidth and 16 dB over 400 MHz for a fully overlapping interferer for a multicarrier 5G NR waveform;
A 223–276-GHz Cascadable FMCW Transceiver in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS for Scalable MIMO Radar Arrays

December 2023

A 223–276-GHz Cascadable FMCW Transceiver in 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS for Scalable MIMO Radar Arrays

by Esref Turkmen
Device Monostatic frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar transceiver front end on a 2.7 mm2 130 nM SiGe BiCMOS chip.
Spectrum 223 – 276 GHz
Novelty The cascadable injection-locking feedthrough technique makes the TRX suitable for massive MIMO antenna arrays in a daisy-chain topology.
Performance Range profile > 100 m, 3 mm range resolution at 53 GHz modulation BW; 3.1 dBm TX out with 41 GHz 3 dB bandwidth at 240 GHz; 27dBm EIRP at 240 GHz with the on-chip antenna coupled with a Si lens; 18.7 dB RX SSB NF at 255 GHz, 20.7 dB NF average; 504.1 mA at 3.3 VDC power consumption.
A 27.2–31.2 GHz 92-fs rms Integrated Jitter, Fractional-N Subsampling PLL Using Phase Rotating Technique in 65-nm CMOS

December 2023

A 27.2–31.2 GHz 92-fs rms Integrated Jitter, Fractional-N Subsampling PLL Using Phase Rotating Technique in 65-nm CMOS

by Gwang Sub Kim , Si-Keuk Ryu, Goo-Han Ko , Kwang-Il Oh , and Donghyun Baek
Device Phase rotation (PR) based fractional N-subsampling phase locked loop (FN-SSPLL) in 65-nm RF CMOS
Spectrum 27.2-31.2 GHz
Novelty Dithering the feedback signal to the VCO and employing a sigma-delta modulator (SDM) on the PLL increases the resolution of the output frequency.
Performance 24 Hz frequency resolution; -104.67 dBc/Hz phase noise at 400 kHz offset at 29.1 GHz; 92 fs rms jitter from 1 kHz to 10 MHz.
An Integrated Reconfigurable Spin Control System on 180 nm CMOS for Diamond NV Centers

September 2023

An Integrated Reconfigurable Spin Control System on 180 nm CMOS for Diamond NV Centers

by Kaisarbek Omirzakhov
Device Integrated reconfigurable quantum control system used to find electron-spin resonance (ESR) frequency and perform Rabi, Ramsey, and Hahn-echo measurements for a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spin qubit in diamond. 180 nm CMOS
Spectrum 1.6-2.6 GHz
Novelty On-chip microwave LC-VCO source is phase and frequency-locked to an external source. Moore Machine used for pulse sequence generation with four control bits for amplitude, width, phase and sign.
Application Quantum computers, communication links and sensors
Performance Up to 4098 reconfigurable pulses with pulse widths from 10 ns to 42 ms and pulse-to-pulse delay from 18 ns to 42 ms at a resolution of 2.5 ns.
An 8-Element 5G Multistandard 28-/39-GHz Dual-Band, Dual-Polarized Phased Array for Compact Systems

September 2023

An 8-Element 5G Multistandard 28-/39-GHz Dual-Band, Dual-Polarized Phased Array for Compact Systems

by Shufan Wang, Abdulrahman Alhamed, and Gabriel M. Rebeiz
Device 2x2 dual-band dual-polarization multiple input multiple output (MIMO) stacked patch antennas connected to a 4x1 wideband beamformer chip.
Spectrum 28 GHz / 39 GHz
Novelty 12-layer printed circuit board (PCB) to reduce cost. Separate patch antennas for each band for wider bandwidth instead of using stubs, slots or pins for a dual-band patch. SiGe BiCMOS beamformer has all RF pads on one side for minimum antenna routing.
Application 5G FR2 cellular devices
Performance Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) is 27-30 dBm; 3dB BW is 26.5-29 GHz, 36-40 GHz Scan is ±40° at 28 GHz, ±30°-40° at 39 GHz Error vector magnitude (EVM) <5%
Liquid Metal-Based Tunable Linear Phase Shifters With Low Insertion Loss, High Phase Resolution, and Low Dispersion

September 2023

Liquid Metal-Based Tunable Linear Phase Shifters With Low Insertion Loss, High Phase Resolution, and Low Dispersion

by By Yi-Wen Wu, Shi-Yang Tang, James Churm, and Yi Wang
Device The phase-shifting element is a via-pad-slot (VPS) structure using a half-mode substrate-integrated waveguide (HMSIW).
Technique Phase shift is achieved when a VSP structure is covered by liquid metal (LM) running in microfluidic channels on the substrate surface.
Spectrum X-Band (8 GHz to 14 GHz)
Novelty Phase shift is determined by the number of covered VPS structures. The device is linear, self-compensating and almost dispersionless. Insertion loss is low as the internal substrate structure is not disturbed.
Application Modulators, demodulators, phased antenna arrays.
Performance Phase shift from 0° to 180° Insertion Loss is 1.1dB ±0.1 dB at 11.5 GHz Phase deviation is ±2° (10-12.5 GHz)
A 1.38-mW 7-bit 1.7-GS/s Single-Channel Loop-Unrolled SAR ADC in 22-nm FD-SOI With 8.85 fJ/Conv.-Step for GHz Mobile Communication and Radar Systems

September 2023 Issue

A 1.38-mW 7-bit 1.7-GS/s Single-Channel Loop-Unrolled SAR ADC in 22-nm FD-SOI With 8.85 fJ/Conv.-Step for GHz Mobile Communication and Radar Systems

by Christian D. Matthus
Device A 7-bit single-channel loop-unrolled successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) 22-nm fully depleted silicon on insulator (FDSOI)
Novelty Tuning to the FDSOI back-gate voltage to calibrate the comparator offset reduces power dissipation 5% and noise 10% compared to conventional approaches. Sharing reset transistors among memory cells reduces delay between comparator decision and switching by 15%.
Application Ultrawideband (UWB) receivers, phase-modulated continuous wave (PMCW) radar
Performance Power consumption is 1.38 mW Sampling rate is 1.7 GS/s Waldon figure of merit (FoMW) is 8.85 fJ/Conv-Step Effective number of bits is 6.52
Spur Canceling Technique by Folded xor Gate Phase Detector and Its Application to a Millimeter-Wave SiGe BiCMOS PLL

August 2023 Issue

Spur Canceling Technique by Folded xor Gate Phase Detector and Its Application to a Millimeter-Wave SiGe BiCMOS PLL

by Y. Liang, Q. Chen, Y. Wang, D. Kissinger and H. J. Ng
Device 130-nm SiGe BiCMOS
Spectrum 80 GHz
Novelty 1) The reference spur generated by each XOR gate is cancelled by a complimentary gate’s reference spur without degrading VCO gain or PLL bandwidth; 2) Push-pull current-reuse 4-gate topology; 3) High Gain of the FXOR PD compensates for its noise contribution.
Application Fully integrated mmW / terahertz wireless communication systems
Performance 1) -73 dBm reference spur; 2) 79.5 fsrms integrated jitter (10 kHz-100 MHz), -102 dBc/Hz2 Lnorm; 3) -241 dB Figure of Merit (FoM), -236 dB FoMJRP, -265 dB FoMJit.n.